The population of the country was placed in two labels: “Civilized” and “Wild” or “Christians” and “non-Christians”. Mr. Dean Worcester, member of the Philippine Commission, said that they could not be called Pagans because some of them were Mohammedans, while others seem to have no form of religious worship. They could not be called wild, for some of them are quite as gentle, and as highly civilized, as their Christian neighbors. Their refusal to accept Christian faith and their adherence to their ancient religion was the reason why Mr. Dean Worcester employ the term non-Christians. The Philippine commission created the Bureau of non-Christian tribes under the Department of Interior headed by Worcester himself. Two years later it was changed to Ethnological Survey for Philippine Island. A Philippine bill passed by U.S. Congress on
When the Spanish military occupation of the Tukuran-Lintugop-Misamis trocha ceased, in 1898, by the withdrawal of the troops of
A telegraphic communication was then established in the north coast of Misamis in time to connect with the
Moro Resistance and Piratical raids
There were a wide spread of resistance against the American presence during the first fifteen year of American rule in
During American period a Moro Datu name Benito is known to have an anting anting (amulet) .The Datu lived near Tukuran beach, he led the lawless Moro to attack the Americans in Militar. Benito was one of the high-ranking Datu among the Moro. When requested by the Americans to capture his lawless Moro follower, Datu Benito refused. He instead fled to the mountains but was latter captured by the Americans and was executed…
When regular troops were removed again the whole trocha was left to the control of the Mosabai Moro, under the leadership of Datu Maminton (Mamintong). The cota of the Moro that was one of the biggest was built right of the
Dato Guilingan a kalibugan in the hinterlands of Labangan became a casualty of the Moro marauder activity
The Moro were defeated by the Philippine troops and the Philippine Constabulary men took over. They were succeeded in 1908 by the Philippine scouts.
Tukuran as a Political Unit:
On this duration
The Philippine Commission enacted a special law .For general application among non-Christians. For the Moro, it passed Act no.39 providing the division of non-Christian Tribes into tribal wards.These special structures, usually politico military in characteristic, were generally designed to be a transition stage in the amalgamation of the non-Christian into their assimilation with the seven million Christian Filipinos. Tribal ward was established in Tukuran. Below is evidence, an excerpt from annual report of the Philippine Commission:
List of Tribal Wards and Their Leaders in
Town Tribe Leader/Name of Leader
Tukuran Illanos Datto Guimba
Tukuran Illanos Datto Guimba
Labangan Illanos DattoBagu
(Balanyug)Balanug Illanos Datto Luminculub
Tawagan Illanos Datto Salicula
Pagadian Illanos Datto Salacub
(Maasim) Masum Illanos Timua Sunimpun
(Maragang) Madagang Illanos Timuay Sunimpun
In 1912, the set of the government was established in Tukuran as a military district under a military president who was supervised by the American military official. Filez Ocampo was the first Military district president for six consecutive years from 1912 to1918.  Tukuran later became a Municipal district; in the 1918 census the municipal district of Tukuran has a population of 3, 921. A municipal district was a political unit, which was less populated and developed than a regular municipality.The size of the municipal district was from Tiaman now part of Misamis Occidental until Dimataling and was bigger than the
Due to the piratical raids of the Mosabai (Moro from Lanao), the people transferred the seat of government to Labangan 1921, although it was on July of 1927 executive order no.70 that made Labangan as Municipal district. There were no hostile Moro. This made Tukuran (former military and Municipal distinct) a barrio of the Municipal district of Labangan. In 1939 Pagadian became a municipality out from Poblacion Pagadian, Municipal district of Labangan and Municipal district of Dinas as they were fused, making Labangan and Tukuran among of the 19 barangay of Pagadian. And making Pagadian as one of the Municipalities of once undivided
When the American occupation left Tukuran, Mosabai Moro resumed their depredation to the people. Subanons then transferred gradually to Labangan because of the raids and presence of Visayans settlers
Two Governing Bodies: 1901-1910
Christians form a governing body out of the existing powers of the Mohammedan. There existed two governing bodies in Tukuran. Feliz Ocampo for the Christians while Dato Mamaclay (Mamaclay Ontong) for the Mohammedan. They settle disputes among their tribe, and marriages were solemnized before them. There were mutual understandings between the two tribes. The two leaders made vow to unite against the Mosabai piratical raids.
After the death of the two leaders, their respective tribe succeeded them. It was tinente Salon (Pedro) for the Christians and Datu Gundo for Iranun. Several Datu and Bario tenenti contributed in the progress of Tukuran.
Resettlement Program of the Government
The resettlement program started during the American Colonial period. Severe drought in Sulu and Zamboanga and grasshopper infestation in
No significant government settlements were organized until 1935. Settlers nevertheless migrated either on their own or through the Interisland and Migration Division of the Bureau of Labor. There were settlement areas like
Arrivals of Settlers
Settlers began to arrive before and after settlement program of the government in some barrios and sitios of Labangan. The following barrios of Tabuan,Tukuran,Luy-a,Tinotungan and Tagulo and their respective sitios became a part of Tukuran as it became a Municipality in 1958. However, before the resettlement program of the government there were people who populated Tukuran.
The family of Jose Pepito, Christituto Rosales, Agapito Ngabil, Alipio Moratas, Durotio Buhisan (became Tiniente del Barrio) settled in 1929 along the coast near Lanao and called it Sugod. They suffered from the attacks of Moro bandits. Christituto Rosales was killed during the attack. Cash, jewelry, livestock, and personal belongings were robbed.
The family of Felipe Calunsag settled along the coast of
In 1907, the people started to settle in the hinterlands of Tinotongan. Since time immemorial these pioneer settlers was forgotten but in 1922 the Ruque, followed by Gorre and the Bayson of Leyte settled.
The families of Reyes, Farales, Gungora, Fiscador, Kilalang and Fabros, all from Zambales settled in 1932-33 in the place and name it Luy-a because of the abundant presence of ginger. They underwent hardships on the early years of settlement.
On board the steamship Mactan, the Aragon’s and de Jesus’ all from
The Respicio from Pagadian of kilometro zero settled in 1935 followed by the Vicentes and Cababaros in 1936 in a place called Tabuan and the rest followed later. The people called it Tabuan for it was believed during the olden times that people used to meet during Tabu (meeting place for barter).
In Tukuran, the Visayans had started to settle along the coast during the late 1920s and came in gradual. The family of Francisco Babanto of
Because of Malaria, some pioneers evacuated the place leaving their homes empty. The place was swampy, nipa trees grows, leech and crabs are found in creeks, Inyam trees are abundant.92
In the late 1930s Ilocanos from
The families of Felipe Lumbas and Basilio Colinares form Man-ilan, Catmon,
The family of Anatacio Botanas and others from Manlayag, Catmon, and
As a result of the heavy influx of settlers from
In Tukuran, most of the old names of the places were changed. Christians changed Kanlukan to Lambayong because of the abundance of Lambayong plant. Iliam/Ilian an Iranun ancient burial site was change to Kamangahan by Christians because of the century old mango tree serves as marker on each family grave. This burial site did not survive since the arrival of Christians because the very site became a residential place among the settlers. Moreover, some of the mango trees were cut down during the widening of municipal road.
Most of the settlers acquired lands because of some reasons: the Subanons used to barter their occupied lands with canned goods e.g. tinapa and sardinas and other modern products to the settlers and most of the Moro were reluctant in cultivating their occupied lands and prefer to go fishing or drinking coffee at painitan in early morning. They usually sell their occupied lands to the Christians.
Socio-cultural and Socio-Economic Development During Settlement
During the early days of settlement, English was the Lingua Franca. They called it carabao English because of poor grammatical structure. Pangpang and Iranun could speak English and used to mingle with the Christian Ilocano and later they learned Cebuano language.
Through the advent of the home seekers, barrio Tukuran had increased its sitios. These were the sitios of Tilibong, Tinago which later became Santo Niño. Sipaway and Lambayong which later became part of Panduma. Kamangahan, Kanawa, and Guay later become part of Curvada. Alinahaw later become a barangay. Kamunggayan and Pasil emerge during 80s as new sitios and peopled by rebel returnees.
Fiesta was celebrated after the arrival of settlers and Sr. San Isidro was the patron saint (now patron saint of
We used to go to Labangan for the books of the student. My uncle and my teacher Tomas Sagun used to rent a hand-powered boat for the transportation of books. Sometimes we were wet and so were the books due to heavy rains and strong wave at the sea. Lumod, a whale used to swim along the boat while going to Labangan.108
Fish was very much abundant in Tukuran. At the depth of 1 ½ meter Tulingan, a tuna was found. Fish were sold by taro (cans). Some were given to people, but often many were found rotten along the seashore.
In the forested barrio of Camanga, Luy-a and Tinotongan wildlife were found. Wild pigs (baboy-sulop), wild deer (binaw), monkeys and hornbill birds (kalaw) were found. Leonora Lagoy’s interview runs as follows:
“Baboy-sulop always caused destruction on our root crops and mais (corn). Our elders had ping pong balls, a homemade bomb, to catch baboy-sulop. The meat was marinated and made as Kusahos (dried meat). Kalaw served as timekeeper for it sounds at exactly at 12 ”
In the forest, Subanons practiced kaingin as the agricultural activity. While in the coast the Iranuns engaged in fishing of which they usually brought their catch to Malabang. After planting mais, the Visayans usually cast their nets to the sea and engaged in Panglab-as, a fish trading. The Ilocanos and Ilonggos settled in the valley for they were rice planters. It was this people who developed the valleys into rice paddies.
Together with these settlers were their customs and traditions. Calesa from
Visayans on the other hand, used to make Tinabal, a salted fish and sold it to the neighboring barrios and towns. Visayan people from the hinterlands went down to sell their products in Tukuran at Daang Mercado, now Provincial Fish port.
 The Minorization of The Indigenous Communityes Of
 Rodil.,The Minoritization.,op.cit., p18.
 Peter Growing, Mandate in the Moroland, The Government of Muslim-Filipinos, 1899-1920.(Director,
 Ibid. p113
 Labangan Teachers,op.cit., p68.
 Labangan Teachers,op.cit., p68.
 Rodil.,The Minoritization.,op.cit., p46
 Labangan Teachers,op.cit., p68.
 Ibid, p65
 Finley,The Subano:Studies .op.cit.p.6.
 Labangan Teachers,op.cit., p68
 Finley,The Subano:Studies . op.cit.,p.6.
 Labangan Teachers,op.cit., p.69.
 Labangan Teachers,op.cit., p.65.
 Ibid., p69
 Growing,op.cit., p113
. Growing,op.cit, p19
 Annual Report of the Philippine Commision.Part1pp370-72; quoted by Rudy Rodel (UP- Diliman,
 Ibid, p69
History of Zamboanga del Sur, 2000,p38
 Ibid, p.54.
Labangan Teachers.op.cit ,p69.
 History of Zamboanga
 Ibid, p38
 Ibid, p36
Labangan Teachers.op.cit, p68
Rodil.,The Minoritization., .op.cit., p.33.
 Labangan Teachers.op.cit, pp. 76
 Ibid. p67
 Ibid. p82
 Ibid. p55
 Ibid. p58
 Ibid. p6
 A Tape Interview with Leonora Cababaro Lagoy, 77 yrs. Old at Dorado’s Residence in Purok
Masidlakon, Tukuran, Zamboanga del Sur. On
 A Tape Interview with Napoleon Cabrales, 76 yrs. Old at his residence at San Carlos Tukuran,
Zamboanga del Sur. On
 Ibid. p2
 A Tape Interview with Guillerma Calpo Cabredo, 84 yrs. Old at his son’s residence in Kamangahan,
Curvada Tukuran, Zamboanga del Sur. On
 Labangan Teachers.op.cit, p82
 A Tape Interview with Raymunda Mulat Suday, 94 yrs. Old at his residence in Purok 5, Mandayag,
Tukuran, Zamboanga del Sur. On
 Rodil.,The Minoritization., op.cit., p37
 Ibid. p37
 Labangan Teachers.op.cit, p47
 Suday Interview.
 . Labangan Teachers.op.cit p77
 A Tape Interview with Sultan Mamadra Panduma, at his 80s in his residence in Panduma, Tukuran,
Zamboanga del Sur. On
 Ibid. p7
 Interview with Mrs. Conchita B. Respicio. 79 yrs. Old at her residence in Respicio Rice and Corn Mill,
Tukuran, Zamboanga del Sur on
 A tape interview with Mr. Napoleon Cabrales, 79 yrs.old at his residence at
Zamboanga del Sur on
 A tape interview with Mr. Romeo Respicio, 74 yrs. Old at his residence at
Zamboanga del Sur on
 N. Cabrales Interview.