Friday, November 23, 2007

Spanish Period

Spanish Period

At the beginning of the 17th century, Spain’s suzerainty over the Philippines had been fairly established. Her colonization had brought great changes in the political, economic, and cultural life in the Philippines.[1]

The name Tukuran and its Strategic location

Tukuran is derived from the word “Tukod” meaning to build or to construct. It was because the place was renowned for building of bankas by Datu Amirul, the father of Uztog (Untong), for his men so they could go fishing. Thus, the name Tukuran existed.[2] In the olden times travelers and traders from far off lands, particularly Zamboanga, places of Lanao Region and Misamis Region used to land or pass this isthmus as the shortest way to Panguil in going to the Visayan islands, making her a strategic location on the trade route.[3]

The People

The Aborigines of Tukuran were the Iranuns, an Islamic Tribe along the coast, and Subanons a pagan tribe of the Hinterlands.

Iranun, which means “Lords of the Eastern Seas”, comes from the word I–Lanaw-en that is of Maguindanao origin meaning, “people from the lake.” The term was popularized by the coastal inhabitants of the Philippine Archipelago, the Malay Peninsula, Java, Sumatra under European rulers as Illanun, (Iranun, Illanaon, Lanun, Illano)- This was later erroneously extended to include non-Maranao speaking people of Southern Mindanao like the Tausug of Jolo, and the Samal of the Sulu Archipelago. The labels Moros, Zeeroovers, and Ilanun were used as late as 1862 to classify various maritime peoples whose ethnic origins did not always correspond to linguistic and political affiliation. The Tausug of Sulu refers Maguindanao, Maranao, and Iranun as Illanun.[4]

The English used Illanun indiscriminately to denote simply “Sulu Pirates.” The Dutch considered them a “ Vile Raise,” identifying them as the shore-dwelling people of Southern Mindanao, Sulu, and several places on the coast of Borneo and Sumatra.[5]

The Subanons are said to be peaceful and industrious people of the mountain.[6] The Dutch in 1700, Cpt. Paulus de Brievings and Ensign Jacob Cloeck, on their way to Minadanao from Ternate used Alfoerezen to apply non-Islamic tribe from Lanao to Zamboanga. According to the accounts of Pastells to Capell as translated and edited by Emma Helen Blair and James Robertson:

The Subanon people are a tribe that has become degenerate because of the persecutions, which they have had to endure from the Moros who collect large tributes from them. They are husbandmen, but the Moros gain the benefits of their sweats. They are long-suffering and pacific for they are not accustomed to the handling of arms; and they are superstitious and ignorant. Their docility would render their complete reduction very easy. They occupy almost all the Peninsula of Sibugay, and are contagious to the Moros of Lanao and of the Bay of Illana. The latter make use of them, for they enslave them in order to make them work their fields.[7]

Another accounts of Gayongos:

We have witnessed, with great grief and pain, the Tiruray and Subanons being sold as if they were beast, young men of 20 range from 40 pesos to 80 pesos: children between 7 to 10 range from 30 pesos to 40 pesos; while adults varied in price range from 30 pesos to 60 pesos, depending upon the robustness and appearance.[8]

They were subjected to the sultanate of Maguindanao and pay annually tax (Buhis).[9]

Vassalage of Sultan of Maguindanao

Tukuran had been vassalage of sultan of Maguindanao even during the time of Kudarat. As evidence an excerpt from the Treaty of Sultan Kudarat of Maguindanao and King Philip IV of Spain which was signed on 24th of June 1645 as. Below is the translated version of de la Costa:

The Spanish crown recognized the people living in the territory from Iho River, in the interior, and in the middle of the Tagalook until Sibugay River as vassalage of Kudarat… In the other side, Kudarat recognized the territory around the Lake Lanao as a part of Spanish territory.[10]

Another evidence is excerpt from Dr. N. Saleeby in 1909’s research:

During his greatness, the sultan of Maguindanao ruled the whole Southern coast of Mindanao, from Punta Tugubum in the east of Mati until in Zamboanga, … until part of Dapitan. All the pagan tribe living in Davao Bay, and in Sarangani, all Subanons in the west of Tukuran and Dapitan recognized his sovereignty and pay tax (Buwis) on him…[11]

Another evidence is an excerpt from Dr.Cesar Majul’s in 1973 research:

The Sultanate of Maguindanao was recognized as the highest leader of Pulangi. His sphare of influence extended to the Iranon territory and of the Maranaos, and also the Bukidnon and Butuan of northern Mindanao.[12]

The first evidence account since Tukuran belongs to the same geographic location. The second showed that the Subanons pay tax to the sultan of Maguindanao. The third evidence mentioned the Iranuns recognizing the Sultanate’s power.

Sultan Amirul

The oral tradition help us a lot to trace the history of a Moro leader inTukuran. The accounts of E. D. Vives on August 1857 made mention on Amirul Muzza of Mindanao as a good fiend of the Spaniards. The accounts of Gayongos on 1883 made mention on Datu Ylian as the successor of the throne. The Spaniards established intimate relationship with some leaders of the central part of the island. Like the Sultan of Ganasi (Gannasi) as Datu Ylian later became Datu Amirul of Mindanao who had been given a fortune by the Spanish government.[13] Amanicauro, son of Datu Ylian lived in the fort with about 300 Moros and they earned a living by the trade they sustained with Jolo, Lake Lanao, Pollok and Cotabato. Even though the Sultanate of Datu Ylian was in Ganasi, the biggest town of Lake Lanao he habitually resided with his son in this fort.[14] The Spaniards strongly believed that this Datu, who was a cousin of Amirul Muzza of Mindanao, was the most likely to succeed him. For this reason the Spanish were working on him diplomatically, as it suited their purpose, for the following reasons: with the death of Datu Amirul, who received a pension of P1,000 and his son Sultan Muamud Bacacao [Muhammad Makakwa], who received P800, the new heir Sultanate, Muhammad Yaladulin [Jalal-ud-Din] Pablu, should in their opinion enjoy the pension of P1000.[15]

There were several candidates of the sultanate namely: Datu Uto of Bacat, an enemy of Spain who counted many followers; another was Mauinitan, first cousin of Pablu the Radia Mura (Rajah Muda) and the third was the uncle of Pablu, Datu Tan of Simoay. According to Spaniards the first contender was not acceptable while the other two were very good friends of Spain and they should like to have them become adviser of Sultan Pablu and the Spaniards tried to give them P800 each as a reward for their splendid service to Spain.[16] According to Gayongos, 1864:

As we foresaw, there was the advantage of having Datu Ylian occupy the place vacated by the death of Amirul; first, he is a man of natural talent; second, he is the first cousin of the deceased; third, the main reason, because as a Sultan of Ganasi, leading town of Lake Lanao, we can obtain important information about this lake which would prove useful to us should our government ever wanted to make a foothold in the place.

For this reason, we work on the plan we had in mind and create a proper atmosphere among principal Datus such that they came to agree with our opinion and were ready to comply with our wishes.

We were completely successful. Datu Ylian was named to succeed Amirul and becomes our friendship with him the majority of Lanao Datu sided with us.[17]

This evidence showed that Amirul once ruled Tukuran as part of his territory mentioned by the oral tradition, secondly, that Tukuran was once part of Caromatan and recognized the power of Spanish crown on March 25, 1851 and thirdly that Tukuran was a vassalage of Sultanate of Maguindanao .

Characteristics of the Sultanate and its Subjects

The characteristics of the Sultanate and its subjects could be best understood through the account of E.D.Vives on his travel along the cost of Illana to Rio Grande of Cotabato on August 1857:

The entire population that composes this fertile and almost unknown area, is found to be, if not in a completely savage state, at least in the infancy of civilization. With all of the qualities and all of the defects that constitute the childhood of societies. [18] Boastful and timid at the same time, these people make ridiculous showing of power and speak of wars that they carry on with some towns governed by unpeaceful chieftains.[19] They consider themselves to be invincible and all-powerful in these combats, which are common, and by verbal. [20]Even when they have a standard number of cannon and artillery, it is a sign of useless strength in their hands, not only because they do not know how to handle them, but also because of the condition in which those elements of destruction are found. For the Muslim of Mindanao consider them to be a sign of sure victory. But they do not know the complete importance of such terrible aid when it is tampered by know how. When we visited the Rio Grande in February, some candid Datus told us that they were waging war as bloody as that of Russia. These we see how presumptuous is the childish condition of these infidel races.[21]

The dominant religion in this land is Islam. But better said this religion consists only of certain superstitious practices which the priests or Panditas carefully maintain for their own benefits. On the other hand, if the aversion of the inhabitants of the river towards pork did not reveal certain characteristics of Islam, it would be difficult to know that this religious doctrine was predominantly when one sees the pleasure and the abundance in which the Muslims of Mindanao publicly consumed wives and spirited drinks of all kinds.[22]

There is no King to rule; nor does there exist a single law that signifies the rights and duties of the associated individuals. But there is a Sultan with fictitious power whom the datus or chieftains of the towns and villages that make up the group, nominally respect. But this Sultan has neither revenue nor troops. He receives no other obedience than that which his so-called subordinates and dependents of the sultanate wish to give voluntarily to his orders. And this obedience cease, to exist the moment that the will of the Sultan is not in harmony with the desires of the datus or when it is contrary to their particular interest. This organization through lack of unity, because of its inability to perform and resist aggression, is liable for conquest.[23]

As feudalism is savage form, the political organization of these peoples suffers from the vices that characterize such an imperfect system of government, which is carried to the full potential of its degrading condition. Each datu therefore considers himself as the most outstanding and powerful chieftain of the country, and yet he has no more loyal subjects than his relatives and his slaves.[24]

The Community and Its Territory

The Iranun established settlements and mooning sites along the river mouth of the Southeast coast of Illana Bay from Punta Flechas to Polloc and all along the coast as far as Sindangan Bay.[25] Thomas Forrest on his account, said, “Their cruisers were fitted out in the vicinity of the Bay of Iligan at Laparan in the North, and at Tubug and Tukuran in the South.” Along the mangrove-screened cross of Illana Bay and in its innumerable inlets the Iranun lived in, built and repaired their prahus with impunity until well into the second half of the nineteenth century. These Iranun communities specialized in slave raiding.[26]

There were branches of Maguindanaos in Zamboanga particularly in Dinas, Tukuran, and Kumalarang in Dumanquillas Bay. They recognized the Sultan of Maguindanao as ruler of the territory from gulf of Sibuguey until Mati, Davao Oriental.[27]

The Moro world could be divided according to Datu O. Mastura in 1979 into three parts; first the Pulangi valley, second the Biwang left part of Pulangi and third the Kawanan right side of Pulangi until Tukuran where Pagadian is a part.[28] The territory of Oran Ilanon according to Thomas Forrest was from Punta Tugapangan until Tukuran.[29] It is in Tukuran where the territory of Oran Ilanun ended and the territory of Maguindanao started.[30] The Subanons world could be divided according to Emerson B. Christie in 1909 into four parts; first The southern coast of peninsula from Tukuran to Buluan.According to him due to the long living with the Moro and long interaction, and to the Datu of the Sultanate of Maguindanao where the Subanons pay tax, their culture were influenced by the Moro. Second those living in the end part of the peninsula, from Buluan of eastern coast until Kipit of western coast, third The Subanons living in the Gulf of Sindangan, and fourth those living in the hinterlands not part of the Christian community of Misamis and the eastern part of Dapitan.[31]

Tukuran as Part of Illana Bay Recognized Spanish Sovereignty

Tukuran submitted to and recognized Isabel III as Queen Regent of Spain. As evidence, an excerpt from E. D. Vives El Rio Grande de Mindanao on August 1857 as translated and edited by Francisco R. Demetrio S. J. Ph. D. of Xavier University, Cagayan de Oro states:

“On February 25, 1850, an act of submission to the Spanish and recognition of its sovereignty was signed by Sia Mama, the Sultan of Zarax and various datus among those that govern the most important people of the bay and plain nearest to the Rio Grande; and finally on March 25, 1851, the Sultan of Carumatan and datus of other peoples of the same bay, submitted themselves to Spanish powers recognizing the sovereignty of her majesty and her uncontested rights over the lands that they govern. Such is the progress of our relations with these peoples that are called to form an integral part of the great Spanish nation by constituting one of the finest gems of Oceania…”[32]

As surveyed by Spaniards

There were surveys conducted by Spaniards in the Isthmus of Tukuran because of its strategic place for Spanish stronghold and to shorten communication in north of Pangil Bay to south of Illana Bay. As evidence an excerpt from Martel de Gayongos Manuscript’s la Isla de Mindanao 1864 Ayer Collection, Newberry Library is quoted by the researcher:

The Region of Tukuran

This territory, located in northern part of Illana Bay, has a clear and wholesome atmosphere and its soil, traversed by rivulets, is fertile. Its inhabitants, Moros who subsist by the production of their land, maintain commercial ties with the Province of Misamis in the northern portion of the island, with its second district being a shorter route form Pagarian (Pagadian).

This settlement is populated by about 200 souls and its shore is plentiful stocked with wild boars, especially at dawn, as we have witnessed. But, in spite of having requested for a specimen of this animal, we cannot obtain any.[33]

He further made recommendation on the place he visited and the following recommendation quoted by the researchers focuses only Tukuran:

We belied that Mindanao be divided into 8 districts: 1 Zamboanga, 2 Misamis, 3 Surigaw, 4 Davao, 5 Cottabato, 6 Sarangani, 7 Pagadian or Tukuran and 8 Dumanquillas .The district 1,4,5,6,7 and 8 be run by officers of 1st to 2nd class. The capital should be situated in the navigable rivers.[34]In warfare Pagadian or Tukuran should have 100 men.[35]In Aid and Development in article #8 he mention that; it is absolutely necessary for the government to open the road from Tukuran or Pagadian to Misamis so that there could be daily contact between the northern and southern districts. Tukuran is a military colony .The island has more or less 1200 rivers and 38 were navigable including Tukuran River.[36]

Another evidence an excerpt from Ramon Blanco does Paul S. Lietz, Loyola University, translate Memoria acerca del estado dela Provincia de Zamboanga on 26th of July 1871;

This is a confidential report to the Captain General of the Philippines, in compliance with an order of June 12, suggesting certain changes and improvements in the military and political control of Mindanao. Recommendations include a change of the capital from Zamboanga to Cotabato; the building of a road across the narrow waste of the eastern peninsula from north to south between Tacuran (Tukuran), Sintogub (Lintugop) to shorten communication and for military advantages against the Moros…”[37]

Gayongos who was able to visit and travel places such as Tukuran once occupied a modest position in the government service and was later assigned to the central part of the island of Mindanao. He stayed there for six consecutive years, in places generally abandoned because of their isolation and insecurity, without having enjoyed leave privileges whatsoever.[38]

Fort Alfonso XII

On the left side of Tukuran River (Brgy. Militar) a fortified station named after the member of the Royal Family known as Fort Alfonso XII[39] as built to stop the Moro from slave raiding activities against the Subanons People to Christians, and to facilitate their pacification on Mindanao campaign of colonization in general. [40] As evidence, an excerpt from the accounts of Pastells to Capell as translated and edited by Emma Helen Blair and James Robertson noted:

The military road from Tukuran to Maranding which has been ordered to be built by his Excellency, Capt. General Terrero will destroy the domination exercise by Illianos Moros and those of Lanao over the Subanons, for it will destroy the piracy and captivity because the impossibility of communication. At the same time, it will facilitate the action of the missionaries in the reduction of the said heathens.[41]

Another evidence is an excerpt from Retana’s accounts in 1896:

One of the primary concerns of the military road construction of Tukuran-Misamis is to establish a communication from North to South, which is not in the interior of the island, in addition to defense of the Subanons, peaceful people from the aggression of the Moros who were usually abducted them and to reduce the terrible Moro slavery. The blanket of this trail, justly speaking, was under the possession ofGovernor General Valeriano Weyler[42]. The construction was officially ended on 12th of March 1890. The path measures 28 km., and there the forts of Tukuran or Alfonso XIII, Infanta Isabel[43] or Lubig (Lubid) and Lintogut (Lintugop) were established, in the bottom of the Bay of Pangil. Since the last movement none can possibly continue the road to Misamis because of the swampy terrain… continuing the road to Lintugot and from here to Misamis… Practicing the acknowledgement, with the order of the General, to see if it was possible to open the road from Lintugot to Lubig towards the end of Binuni… With all, the first time the line of the forts of the trail was established, there was a lot of choices to dominate the more important part of the island in a more effective, and after the situation in the end mentioned, to put up again in Margo-sa-tubig, in the Dumanquillas, the more of that given willingness to put up in frequent relation during the more principal periods existing from Dapitan to Cagayan or Misamis, and restore the maritime service wanted in the south coast of the island to prevent piratical expeditions.[44]

Another account by Finley was found which described the Spanish forts of Alfonso and its neighboring forts in the Isthmus[45] of Tukuran used by Spaniards in pacifying the Moro and their campaign on the complete colonization in Mindanao.

The Spaniards preparation at Tukuran and of the Trocha consisted of a stone blockhouse at the mouth of the river; earthwork on the high bluffs above the river on the eastside; a stone fort on a knoll about one hundred yards farther east: another stone blockhouse about a quarter of a mile east of the river and on a knoll overlooking the sea and guarding the water supply of the fort. In connection of the earthwork on the bluffs, the Spaniards constructed quarters, barracks, stone houses, a hospital and magazines for the use of infantry and artillery. A wagon road on the Trocha was built from Tukuran to Lintogud, connecting the fortified station of Cristina, Isabel and Alfonso XIII. A map dated in 1891 from Proyectos de Dominacion y Colonizacion de Mindanao y Jolo (Salcedo 1891) shows that four forts were constructed namely Alfonso XIII, Isabel, Sta. Paz y Sta. Eulalia and Maria Cristina.[46]

Districts and communities of Moro people and their leaders in Mindanao on ca. 1898, including Tukuran and the neighboring communities. [47] are found in an Excerpt from Benito Francia y Ponce de Leon y Julian Gonzales Parrado in their Las Islas Filipinas: Mindanao as quoted by B. Rodil:

Communities Leaders

Tucuran (Tukuran) Sultan Uztug

Bayao (Upper and Lower Bayao) Datto Taal

Rautian Datto Butto

Labangan Datto Lucos

Balanaue Datto Maucuza

Tachagul Datto Mazla

Tiguma Sultan Tachagul

Pagadian Free

Masun Datto Payo

Pool Sacaluran

Malubug Payamong (female)

Dimas (Dinas) Datto Maidan

Sambulawan Datto Andin

Tagulug (Tagolu) Datto Dagugul

Curumata (Sultan Naga Dimaporo) Free

Sigayan Sultan of Tukuran

Further, Governor Gen. Valeriano Weyler proposed the construction of a canal across the isthmus to facilitate the travel from the Visayan seas through Pangil Bay to the southern seas of the Mindanao through Illana Bay. However, this plan did not materialize.[48] Telegraphic communication facilities were also established between Tukuran and other station to Misamis at the head of Panguil bay.[49]

[1] GregorioE. Zaide, Philippine Political and Cultural History (Manila: Philippine Educational Company,.1957),p.58.

[2]Teachers of municipality of Labangan, A brief history of the community,. Historical Data

Collection of Zamboanga del Sur., 1954, (Manila Rare Book and Manuscript Collections, National Library, TM Kalaw, Ermita,), p70.

[3] Souvenir Program of Municipality of Tukuran (Souvenir Program on its 41st Araw ng Tukuran, 2000), p.10.

[4]Warren, James Francis. The Sulu Zone 1768-1896,(Singapore:University Press,19790,P.178.

[5] Ibid.

[6] Archeological Assessment of Spanish Historical Sites at Tukuran, Zamboanga del Sur, (Manila: National Museum, June 1994), p.7.

[7] Emma Helen Blair and James Alexander Robertson, Eds. , The Philippine Islands. (Cleveland: 1903-1909) Volume 43, pp. 283-284

[8] Martel de Gayangos La Isla de Mindanao;translator, Historical Institute,(Published by Historical Institute, Manila1864). p123

[9] Rudy Buhay Rodel,Kasaysayan ng mga Pamayanang Moro ng Mindanao at Arkepilago ng Sulu 1596-1898(Manila:Unibersidad ng Pilipinas Diliman Lungsod ng Quezon 1992) , p.158

[10] Horacio de la Costa, S.J., The Jesuits in the Philippines, 1581-1768 (Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1967). p 443

[11] Najeeb M. Saleeby, “Studies in Moro History, Law and Religion”, Notre Dame Journal, Vol.6, No.1 (April) 1975. First Ed. – Manila: Bureau of Printing, 1905),p.32.

[12] Rodil, Kasaysayan, op.cit. p.205

[13] Gayangos,Op.Cit.p123

[14] Ibid.

[15] Ibid. p127

[16] Ibid. p128

[17] Ibid.

[18] E.D.Vives,El Rio Grande de Mindanao 1857 ,translator, Francisco DemetrioS.J.Ph.D.(Cagayan de Oro City,1992),p1240.

[19] Ibid.


[21] Ibid.

[22] Ibid.

[23] Ibid.,p1243.

[24] Ibid.

[25] Warren, op.cit.p151

[26] Ibid.

[27] Rodil, Kasaysayan, op.cit.,p.92.

[28]. Ibid.

[29] Ibid. , p151

[30]Rodil, Kasaysayan, op.cit.,p.9.

[31] Ibid, p.234-235

[32] Demetrio. Northern Hist, op.cit., pp. 1246-1247

[33]Gayangos op.cit., p169

[34] Ibid.

[35] Ibid.,p172.

[36] Ibid.,p183.

[37] Alfredo T. Tiamson, Mindanao-Sulu Bibliography. (Davao City: Ateneo de Davao, 1970). P.54.

[38] Ibid. p123

[39] Alfonso XIII (1886-1941), king of Spain (1886-1931), whose reign was marked by revolutionary, antidynastic uprisings, notably in Madrid and Barcelona from 1909 to 1911. He was the posthumous son of King Alfonso XII. Until he attained his majority in 1902, his mother, Queen Maria Christina, acted as regent. The principal event of this period was the Spanish-American War, in which Spain lost the Philippines and all its possessions in the New World. Alfonso pursued a neutral policy during World War I (1914-18), but was blamed for Spanish defeats in Morocco in 1921. From 1923 to 1930, he associated himself with the unpopular dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera. Following a period marked by strikes and riots, Alfonso was forced to flee Spain in 1931; he spent the rest of his life in exile.

[40]Bautista, Archeological Assessment,. Op.cit.,p.7

[41] Emma Helen Blair and James Alexander Robertson, Eds. , op.cit., Volume 43, pp. 283-284

[42] Martínez de Campos, the Spanish captain general and veteran of the Ten Years' War, was replaced by Gen. Valeriano Weyler. Weyler waged a total war, but Maceo eluded his grasp for months. Spain sent huge reinforcements to Cuba. To put down the 1895 rebellion, the Spanish government poured more than 100,000 troops into the island. General Valeriano Weyler y Nicolau, known as the “Butcher” for his ruthless suppression of earlier revolts, was sent to the island as captain general and military governor. He immediately rounded up the peasant population and put them in concentration camps in or near garrison towns. Thousands died of starvation and disease.

The brutality of “Butcher” Weyler aroused great indignation in the United States. The general anger was exploited by sensational press reports, which exaggerated even Weyler’s ruthlessness. In 1897 the Spanish government became alarmed at the belligerent tone of public opinion in the United States. Weyler was recalled, and overtures were made to the rebels. The rebels rejected an offer of autonomy, however, and were determined to fight for complete independence.

[43] the Austrian archduke Albert and his wife, the Spanish infanta Isabella, who together ruled the Low Countries as viceroys for the king of Spain.

[44] John Park Finley,The Subano:Studies of a Sub-Visayan Mountain Folk of Mindanao (Washington,D.C.:Published by the Carnegie Institute Of Washington,1913).p7

[45]A narrow strip of land connecting two larger land areas. Some of the best-known examples are the Isthmus of Panama, which connects North and South America, and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, which connects southern Mexico and Central America with the rest of Mexico and North America. While a Peninsula is a strip of land largely surrounded by water and connected to a larger land mass by a narrow neck or isthmus.

[46] Bautista, Archeological Assessment,.op.cit.,p.6. Until he (Alfonso XIII son) attained his majority in 1902, his mother, Queen Maria Christina, acted as regent. His (alfonso XII father) untimely death was followed by the long, troubled regency of his second wife, Maria Christina of Austria.

[47] Benito Francia y Ponce de Leon y Julian Gonzales Parrado, Las Islas Filipinas: Mindanao (Habana: Imp. De la Subinspiccion de Infanteria, 1898) Tomo II & I. The whole chapter IV, pp. 173-223, is focused in the Moro Community in the whole Mindanao and Basilan: Rudy Buhay Rodel,Kasaysayan ng mga Pamayanang Moro ng Mindanao at Arkepilago ng Sulu 1596-1898(Manila:Unibersidad ng Pilipinas Diliman Lungsod ng Quezon 1992) , p.286.

[48] Bautista Archeological Assessment op.cit.,p.5.

[49] Ibid.,p7.

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