At the beginning of the 17th century,
The name Tukuran and its Strategic location
Tukuran is derived from the word “Tukod” meaning to build or to construct. It was because the place was renowned for building of bankas by Datu Amirul, the father of Uztog (Untong), for his men so they could go fishing. Thus, the name Tukuran existed. In the olden times travelers and traders from far off lands, particularly Zamboanga, places of Lanao Region and Misamis Region used to land or pass this isthmus as the shortest way to Panguil in going to the Visayan islands, making her a strategic location on the trade route.
The Aborigines of Tukuran were the Iranuns, an Islamic Tribe along the coast, and Subanons a pagan tribe of the Hinterlands.
Iranun, which means “Lords of the
The English used Illanun indiscriminately to denote simply “Sulu Pirates.” The Dutch considered them a “ Vile Raise,” identifying them as the shore-dwelling people of Southern Mindanao, Sulu, and several places on the coast of Borneo and
The Subanons are said to be peaceful and industrious people of the mountain. The Dutch in 1700, Cpt. Paulus de Brievings and Ensign Jacob Cloeck, on their way to Minadanao from
The Subanon people are a tribe that has become degenerate because of the persecutions, which they have had to endure from the Moros who collect large tributes from them. They are husbandmen, but the Moros gain the benefits of their sweats. They are long-suffering and pacific for they are not accustomed to the handling of arms; and they are superstitious and ignorant. Their docility would render their complete reduction very easy. They occupy almost all the
Another accounts of Gayongos:
We have witnessed, with great grief and pain, the Tiruray and Subanons being sold as if they were beast, young men of 20 range from 40 pesos to 80 pesos: children between 7 to 10 range from 30 pesos to 40 pesos; while adults varied in price range from 30 pesos to 60 pesos, depending upon the robustness and appearance.
They were subjected to the sultanate of Maguindanao and pay annually tax (Buhis).
Vassalage of Sultan of Maguindanao
Tukuran had been vassalage of sultan of Maguindanao even during the time of Kudarat. As evidence an excerpt from the Treaty of Sultan Kudarat of Maguindanao and King Philip IV of
The Spanish crown recognized the people living in the territory from
Another evidence is excerpt from Dr. N. Saleeby in 1909’s research:
During his greatness, the sultan of Maguindanao ruled the whole Southern coast of
Another evidence is an excerpt from Dr.Cesar Majul’s in 1973 research:
The Sultanate of Maguindanao was recognized as the highest leader of Pulangi. His sphare of influence extended to the Iranon territory and of the Maranaos, and also the Bukidnon and Butuan of northern
The first evidence account since Tukuran belongs to the same geographic location. The second showed that the Subanons pay tax to the sultan of Maguindanao. The third evidence mentioned the Iranuns recognizing the Sultanate’s power.
The oral tradition help us a lot to trace the history of a Moro leader inTukuran. The accounts of E. D. Vives on August 1857 made mention on Amirul Muzza of
There were several candidates of the sultanate namely: Datu Uto of Bacat, an enemy of Spain who counted many followers; another was Mauinitan, first cousin of Pablu the Radia Mura (Rajah Muda) and the third was the uncle of Pablu, Datu Tan of Simoay. According to Spaniards the first contender was not acceptable while the other two were very good friends of Spain and they should like to have them become adviser of Sultan Pablu and the Spaniards tried to give them P800 each as a reward for their splendid service to Spain. According to Gayongos, 1864:
As we foresaw, there was the advantage of having Datu Ylian occupy the place vacated by the death of Amirul; first, he is a man of natural talent; second, he is the first cousin of the deceased; third, the main reason, because as a Sultan of Ganasi, leading town of Lake Lanao, we can obtain important information about this lake which would prove useful to us should our government ever wanted to make a foothold in the place.
For this reason, we work on the plan we had in mind and create a proper atmosphere among principal Datus such that they came to agree with our opinion and were ready to comply with our wishes.
We were completely successful. Datu Ylian was named to succeed Amirul and becomes our friendship with him the majority of Lanao Datu sided with us.
This evidence showed that Amirul once ruled Tukuran as part of his territory mentioned by the oral tradition, secondly, that Tukuran was once part of Caromatan and recognized the power of Spanish crown on
Characteristics of the Sultanate and its Subjects
The characteristics of the Sultanate and its subjects could be best understood through the account of E.D.Vives on his travel along the cost of Illana to Rio Grande of Cotabato on August 1857:
The entire population that composes this fertile and almost unknown area, is found to be, if not in a completely savage state, at least in the infancy of civilization. With all of the qualities and all of the defects that constitute the childhood of societies.  Boastful and timid at the same time, these people make ridiculous showing of power and speak of wars that they carry on with some towns governed by unpeaceful chieftains. They consider themselves to be invincible and all-powerful in these combats, which are common, and by verbal. Even when they have a standard number of cannon and artillery, it is a sign of useless strength in their hands, not only because they do not know how to handle them, but also because of the condition in which those elements of destruction are found. For the Muslim of
The dominant religion in this land is Islam. But better said this religion consists only of certain superstitious practices which the priests or Panditas carefully maintain for their own benefits. On the other hand, if the aversion of the inhabitants of the river towards pork did not reveal certain characteristics of Islam, it would be difficult to know that this religious doctrine was predominantly when one sees the pleasure and the abundance in which the Muslims of
There is no King to rule; nor does there exist a single law that signifies the rights and duties of the associated individuals. But there is a Sultan with fictitious power whom the datus or chieftains of the towns and villages that make up the group, nominally respect. But this Sultan has neither revenue nor troops. He receives no other obedience than that which his so-called subordinates and dependents of the sultanate wish to give voluntarily to his orders. And this obedience cease, to exist the moment that the will of the Sultan is not in harmony with the desires of the datus or when it is contrary to their particular interest. This organization through lack of unity, because of its inability to perform and resist aggression, is liable for conquest.
As feudalism is savage form, the political organization of these peoples suffers from the vices that characterize such an imperfect system of government, which is carried to the full potential of its degrading condition. Each datu therefore considers himself as the most outstanding and powerful chieftain of the country, and yet he has no more loyal subjects than his relatives and his slaves.
The Community and Its Territory
The Iranun established settlements and mooning sites along the river mouth of the Southeast coast of
There were branches of Maguindanaos in Zamboanga particularly in Dinas, Tukuran, and Kumalarang in
The Moro world could be divided according to Datu O. Mastura in 1979 into three parts; first the Pulangi valley, second the Biwang left part of Pulangi and third the Kawanan right side of Pulangi until Tukuran where Pagadian is a part. The
Tukuran as Part of
Recognized Spanish Sovereignty Illana Bay
Tukuran submitted to and recognized Isabel III as Queen Regent of
“On February 25, 1850, an act of submission to the Spanish and recognition of its sovereignty was signed by Sia Mama, the Sultan of Zarax and various datus among those that govern the most important people of the bay and plain nearest to the Rio Grande; and finally on March 25, 1851, the Sultan of Carumatan and datus of other peoples of the same bay, submitted themselves to Spanish powers recognizing the sovereignty of her majesty and her uncontested rights over the lands that they govern. Such is the progress of our relations with these peoples that are called to form an integral part of the great Spanish nation by constituting one of the finest gems of
As surveyed by Spaniards
There were surveys conducted by Spaniards in the Isthmus of Tukuran because of its strategic place for Spanish stronghold and to shorten communication in north of
The Region of Tukuran
This territory, located in northern part of
This settlement is populated by about 200 souls and its shore is plentiful stocked with wild boars, especially at dawn, as we have witnessed. But, in spite of having requested for a specimen of this animal, we cannot obtain any.
He further made recommendation on the place he visited and the following recommendation quoted by the researchers focuses only Tukuran:
We belied that Mindanao be divided into 8 districts: 1 Zamboanga, 2 Misamis, 3 Surigaw, 4 Davao, 5 Cottabato, 6 Sarangani, 7 Pagadian or Tukuran and 8 Dumanquillas .The district 1,4,5,6,7 and 8 be run by officers of 1st to 2nd class. The capital should be situated in the navigable rivers.In warfare Pagadian or Tukuran should have 100 men.In Aid and Development in article #8 he mention that; it is absolutely necessary for the government to open the road from Tukuran or Pagadian to Misamis so that there could be daily contact between the northern and southern districts. Tukuran is a military colony .The island has more or less 1200 rivers and 38 were navigable including
Another evidence an excerpt from Ramon Blanco does Paul S. Lietz,
“This is a confidential report to the Captain General of the
Gayongos who was able to visit and travel places such as Tukuran once occupied a modest position in the government service and was later assigned to the central part of the
Fort Alfonso XII
On the left side of
The military road from Tukuran to Maranding which has been ordered to be built by his Excellency, Capt. General Terrero will destroy the domination exercise by Illianos Moros and those of Lanao over the Subanons, for it will destroy the piracy and captivity because the impossibility of communication. At the same time, it will facilitate the action of the missionaries in the reduction of the said heathens.
Another evidence is an excerpt from Retana’s accounts in 1896:
One of the primary concerns of the military road construction of Tukuran-Misamis is to establish a communication from North to South, which is not in the interior of the island, in addition to defense of the Subanons, peaceful people from the aggression of the Moros who were usually abducted them and to reduce the terrible Moro slavery. The blanket of this trail, justly speaking, was under the possession ofGovernor General Valeriano Weyler. The construction was officially ended on 12th of March 1890. The path measures 28 km., and there the forts of Tukuran or Alfonso XIII, Infanta Isabel or Lubig (Lubid) and Lintogut (Lintugop) were established, in the bottom of the
Another account by Finley was found which described the Spanish forts of Alfonso and its neighboring forts in the Isthmus of Tukuran used by Spaniards in pacifying the Moro and their campaign on the complete colonization in
The Spaniards preparation at Tukuran and of the Trocha consisted of a stone blockhouse at the mouth of the river; earthwork on the high bluffs above the river on the eastside; a stone fort on a knoll about one hundred yards farther east: another stone blockhouse about a quarter of a mile east of the river and on a knoll overlooking the sea and guarding the water supply of the fort. In connection of the earthwork on the bluffs, the Spaniards constructed quarters, barracks, stone houses, a hospital and magazines for the use of infantry and artillery. A wagon road on the Trocha was built from Tukuran to Lintogud, connecting the fortified station of Cristina, Isabel and Alfonso XIII. A map dated in 1891 from Proyectos de Dominacion y Colonizacion de Mindanao y Jolo (Salcedo 1891) shows that four forts were constructed namely Alfonso XIII, Isabel, Sta. Paz y Sta. Eulalia and Maria Cristina.
Districts and communities of Moro people and their leaders in
Tucuran (Tukuran) Sultan Uztug
Bayao (Upper and
Rautian Datto Butto
Labangan Datto Lucos
Balanaue Datto Maucuza
Tachagul Datto Mazla
Tiguma Sultan Tachagul
Masun Datto Payo
Malubug Payamong (female)
Dimas (Dinas) Datto Maidan
Sambulawan Datto Andin
Tagulug (Tagolu) Datto Dagugul
Curumata (Sultan Naga Dimaporo) Free
Sigayan Sultan of Tukuran
Further, Governor Gen. Valeriano Weyler proposed the construction of a canal across the isthmus to facilitate the travel from the Visayan seas through
 GregorioE. Zaide, Philippine Political and Cultural History (
Collection of Zamboanga del Sur., 1954, (Manila Rare Book and Manuscript Collections, National Library, TM Kalaw, Ermita,), p70.
 Souvenir Program of Municipality of Tukuran (Souvenir Program on its 41st Araw ng Tukuran, 2000), p.10.
Warren, James Francis. The Sulu Zone 1768-1896,(
 Archeological Assessment of Spanish Historical Sites at Tukuran, Zamboanga del Sur, (Manila: National Museum, June 1994), p.7.
 Emma Helen Blair and James Alexander Robertson, Eds. , The Philippine
 Martel de Gayangos La Isla de Mindanao;translator, Historical Institute,(Published by Historical Institute, Manila1864). p123
 Rudy Buhay Rodel,Kasaysayan ng mga Pamayanang Moro ng
 Horacio de la Costa, S.J., The Jesuits in the
 Najeeb M. Saleeby, “Studies in Moro History, Law and Religion”, Notre Dame Journal, Vol.6, No.1 (April) 1975. First Ed. –
 Rodil, Kasaysayan, op.cit. p.205
 Ibid. p127
 Ibid. p128
 E.D.Vives,El Rio Grande de Mindanao 1857 ,translator, Francisco DemetrioS.J.Ph.D.(Cagayan de Oro City,1992),p1240.
 Rodil, Kasaysayan, op.cit.,p.92.
 Ibid. , p151
Rodil, Kasaysayan, op.cit.,p.9.
 Ibid, p.234-235
 Demetrio. Northern Hist, op.cit., pp. 1246-1247
Gayangos op.cit., p169
 Alfredo T. Tiamson, Mindanao-Sulu Bibliography. (Davao City: Ateneo de Davao, 1970). P.54.
 Ibid. p123
 Alfonso XIII (1886-1941), king of Spain (1886-1931), whose reign was marked by revolutionary, antidynastic uprisings, notably in Madrid and Barcelona from 1909 to 1911. He was the posthumous son of King Alfonso XII. Until he attained his majority in 1902, his mother, Queen Maria Christina, acted as regent. The principal event of this period was the Spanish-American War, in which
Bautista, Archeological Assessment,. Op.cit.,p.7
 Emma Helen Blair and James Alexander Robertson, Eds. , op.cit., Volume 43, pp. 283-284
 Martínez de Campos, the Spanish captain general and veteran of the Ten Years' War, was replaced by Gen. Valeriano Weyler. Weyler waged a total war, but Maceo eluded his grasp for months.
The brutality of “Butcher” Weyler aroused great indignation in the
 the Austrian archduke Albert and his wife, the Spanish infanta Isabella, who together ruled the Low Countries as viceroys for the king of
 John Park Finley,The Subano:Studies of a
A narrow strip of land connecting two larger land areas. Some of the best-known examples are the Isthmus of Panama, which connects North and South America, and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, which connects southern
 Bautista, Archeological Assessment,.op.cit.,p.6. Until he (Alfonso XIII son) attained his majority in 1902, his mother, Queen Maria Christina, acted as regent. His (alfonso XII father) untimely death was followed by the long, troubled regency of his second wife, Maria Christina of
 Benito Francia y Ponce de
 Bautista Archeological Assessment op.cit.,p.5.